Three hours of lecture per week. Prerequisites. Two years of Filipino/Tagalog or consent of instructor. The class focuses on developing the following: reading skills for texts containing abstract vocabulary, idiomatic expressions, and complex sentences; listening skills for authentic texts; and writing skills in exposition and argumentation. In this class, we will: read short articles, opinion columns, literary texts and academic essays; watch/listen to authentic video/audio texts; and write or translate short essays and creative work. Additionally, we will work with examples of language through texts written in 19th-century Tagalog, Commonwealth-era Pilipino, and contemporary Filipino.Discussions shall be guided by the following questions: In terms of orthography and vocabulary, how has the language changed from Tagalog to Pilipino to Filipino? What strategies and techniques can we use in writing and translation work? How can we use the language to best understand Philippine history, culture, and society?