Burmese 100A: Intermediate Burmese

Category: Languages
Course #: 32897
Units: 5
Times and Locations:

W 4-6, B7 Dwinelle;

Th 4-6, B7 Dwinelle;

F 4-5, B7 Dwinelle

Kenneth Wong teaches intermediate Burmese using excerpts from short stories by Ma Sandar, essays by Ludu Daw Amar, contemporary poems, pop song lyrics, and YouTube clips. Students learn to read, write, and talk about familiar topics, ranging from memorable trips and meals to daily routines…

Filipino 1A Section 1: Introductory Filipino

Category: Languages
Course #: 26267
Units: 5
Instructors: Cynthia “Chat” Aban
Times and Locations:

MTuWThF 11 am-12 pm

187 Dwinelle

Filipino 1A is the first semester in the Introductory Filipino two-semester series (Filipino 1A and 1B). This is a beginners’ class with emphasis on the four basic skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The course uses the functional approach in learning a language. At the…

Filipino 1A Section 2: Introductory Filipino

Category: Languages
Course #: 26268
Units: 5
Instructors: Cynthia “Chat” Aban
Times and Locations:

MTuWThF 12-1 pm

183 Dwinelle

A systematic introduction to the grammar, sentence patterns, and essential vocabulary of modern standard Filipino. Emphasis is placed on extensive practice in idiomatic Filipino conversation, with additional practice in reading and writing Filipino.

Filipino 1A Section 3: Introductory Filipino

Category: Languages
Course #: 26269
Units: 5
Instructors: Joi Barrios-LeBlanc
Times and Locations:

MW 11 am-1 pm, 259 Dwinelle

F 11 am-12 pm, 242 Dwinelle

Filipino 1A. Introductory Filipino. Five hours a Week. Prerequisites – none. Do you know the words nanay (mother), tatay (father), sinigang (sour soup), and kawawa (poor you)? Would you like to better communicate with your grandparents who speak Filipino? You may be a heritage learner,…

Filipino 1A, Section 4: Introductory Filipino

Category: Languages
Course #: 26270
Units: 5
Instructors: Joi Barrios-LeBlanc
Times and Locations:

TuTh 12:30-2 pm, 130 Dwinelle

F 12-2 pm, 187 Dwinelle

Filipino 1A. Introductory Filipino. Five hours a Week. Prerequisites – none. Do you know the words nanay (mother), tatay (father), sinigang (sour soup), and kawawa (poor you)? Would you like to better communicate with your grandparents who speak Filipino? You may be a heritage learner,…

Filipino 1B Section 1: Introductory Filipino

Category: Languages
Course #: 26722
Units: 5
Times and Locations:

TuTh 2-3:30 pm, 254 Dwinelle

W 2-4 pm, 179 Dwinelle

This is the continuation of the beginners’ class with emphasis on the four basic skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The course uses the functional approach in learning a language. The students focus on basic conversational skills in Filipino. A review of basic grammar rules…

Filipino 100A Section 1: Intermediate Filipino

Category: Languages
Course #: 24178
Units: 5
Instructors: Karen Llagas
Times and Locations:

TuTh 11 am-12:30 pm, 262 Dwinelle

W 10 am-12 pm, 89 Dwinelle

 

 

This is an intermediate class with emphasis on the four basic skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The course uses the functional-situational approach in learning a language.The students will learn four necessary skills in the effective use of Filipino: paglalahad (defining and explaining); paglalarawan (describing…

Filipino 100A Section 2: Intermediate Filipino

Category: Languages
Course #: 21479
Units: 5
Instructors: Karen Llagas
Times and Locations:

TuTh 12:30-2 pm, 2066 VLSB

W 12-2 pm, 2070 VLSB

The goal of this course is to enable students to increase their proficiency in Filipino to at least the intermediate-high level of the national ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines. While speaking and listening comprehension will be stressed, training in reading and writing Filipino will be an integral…

Filipino 101A: Advanced Filipino

Category: Languages
Course #: 23615
Units: 3
Instructors: Joi Barrios-LeBlanc
Times and Locations:

TuTh 11 am-12:30 pm, 104 Wheeler

Three hours of lecture per week. Prerequisites. Two years of Filipino/Tagalog or consent of instructor. The class focuses on developing the following: reading skills for texts containing abstract vocabulary, idiomatic expressions, and complex sentences; listening skills for authentic texts; and writing skills in exposition and…

Hindi 1A: Introductory Hindi

Category: Languages
Course #: 23990
Units: 5
Instructors: Nora Koa
Times and Locations:

TR 11-12:30 Dwinelle B3

F 11-12:30 Dwinelle B37

In Introductory Hindi, you will learn to understand sentences and frequently used expressions related to areas of most immediate relevance (e.g. very basic personal and family information, shopping, local geography, employment). You will learn to communicate simply and discuss routine tasks requiring  simple and direct…

Hindi 100A: Intermediate Hindi

Category: Languages
Course #: 25636
Units: 4
Instructors: Nora Koa
Times and Locations:
TuTh 9:30-11

In Hindi 100A, you will learn to understand the main points of clear standard input on familiar matters regularly encountered in work, school, leisure, etc. You will learn to deal with most situations likely to arise whilst travelling in an area where Hindi is spoken….

Hindi 101A: Readings in Modern Hindi

Category: Languages
Course #: 26271
Units: 4
Instructors: Nora Koa
Times and Locations:
MW 9:30-11

This course is designed for students who have already acquired upper-intermediate or higher level of Hindi. Its objective is to move students toward a greater level of proficiency in all language skills and introduce them to a variety of contemporary literary genres. Weekly readings, class…

Indonesian 1A: Introductory Indonesian

Category: Languages
Course #: 23986
Units: 5
Instructors: Ninik Lunde
Times and Locations:
MW 10 am-12 pm, 115 Social Sciences
F 10 am-11 am, 115 Social Sciences

Indonesian 1A introduces students to elementary Indonesian conversation and develops reading and writing commensurate with the students’ abilities. This class provides  students with the skills to express words and phrases such as greeting people, leave taking, talking about oneself or family, indicating time, asking and…

Indonesian 100A Section 1: Intermediate Indonesian

Category: Languages
Course #: 23987
Units: 5
Instructors: Ninik Lunde
Times and Locations:
MW 12-2 pm 214 Haviland
F 12-1 pm 214 Haviland

This course provides readings in Indonesian textbooks, newspapers, journals, and literature. This class provides students with the skills needed to use Indonesian adequately in familiar situations and to communicate general messages. Students will be expected to be more skilled to speak Indonesian with sufficient structural…

Indonesian 100A Section 2: Intermediate Indonesian

Category: Languages
Course #: 23988
Units: 5
Instructors: Ninik Lunde
Times and Locations:

TuTh 10 am-12 pm 78 Social Sciences

F 11 am-12 pm 78 Social Sciences

This course provides readings in Indonesian textbooks, newspapers, journals, and literature. This class provides students with the skills needed to use Indonesian adequately in familiar situations and to communicate general messages. Students will be expected to be more skilled to speak Indonesian with sufficient structural…

Khmer 100A: Intermediate Khmer

Category: Languages
Course #: 21701
Units: 5
Instructors: Frank Smith
Times and Locations:

MTuWTh 4-5:30 pm

This class is for students who can already speak and understand “survival” or “home Khmer.” No previous knowledge of written Khmer is required for the course. Students will learn the basics of reading and writing as well as formal speaking. Topics covered include folk tales,…

Indonesian 210A: Seminar in Malay Letters and Oral Traditions

Category: Graduate Seminars
Course #: 25442
Units: 4
Instructors: Sylvia Tiwon
Times and Locations:

W 3-6 pm, 206 Dwinelle

This seminar focuses on reading Indonesian texts from a variety of perspectives.  We will develop a set of methods and tools to help us read, analyze and interpret a variety of texts in Indonesian and/or Malay.  We will approach the text as a link between…

Khmer 1A: Introductory Khmer

Category: Languages
Course #: 21707
Units: 5
Instructors: Frank Smith
Times and Locations:
MTuWThF 2-3 pm

This class is for students with no previous speaking ability in Khmer, and is the first part of a two-semester sequence, along with Khmer 1B. Students will learn “survival” speaking, reading, and writing skills in Khmer, and also become familiar with and learn how to…

Khmer 101A: Advanced Khmer

Category: Languages
Course #: 23164
Units: 3
Instructors: Frank Smith
Times and Locations:

TuTh 12:30-2 pm

This class is for students who are already familiar with the basics of written Khmer, and can express themselves in informal and some formal spoken Khmer. Students should be able to write basic narratives about their lives and describe various aspects of Khmer culture, and…

Punjabi 1A: Introductory Punjabi

Category: Languages
Course #: 22789
Units: 5
Times and Locations:

TuTh 9:30-11 am, 2066 VLSB

LAB (#23134) F 10am – 12pm, 104 Wheeler

In this introductory year, students will be introduced to Gurmukhi script, and a survey of Punjabi grammar. Graded exercises are designed to lead to a mastery of basic language patterns, essential vocabulary, and the achievement of basic reading and writing skills.

Punjabi 100A: Intermediate Punjabi

Category: Languages
Course #: 22800
Units: 5
Times and Locations:

TuTh 2-3:30 pm, 71 Evans

LAB (#23171) F 2-4pm, 115 AAPB

Instructor: Sukhdeep Sembi

These two semesters focus on reading, writing and speaking Punjabi more fluently in formal and informal contexts. Selected readings vary every semester. These form the starting point to stimulate students’ own writings which include a long interview with a Punjabi elder from the wider community….

Sanskrit 100A: Elementary Sanskrit

Category: Languages
Course #: 22790
Units: 5
Times and Locations:

MWF 8-10 am, 233 Dwinelle

Sanskrit 100A, followed by 100B, introduces students to Sanskrit grammar, with the goal of developing the skills necessary to speak and read basic, simple Sanskrit texts. Sanskrit 100A covers lessons 1–12 of the Devavāṇīpraveśikā [Robert P. Goldman and Sally J. Sutherland Goldman, 2019], including, the…

Sanskrit 101A: Intermediate Sanskrit: Epic and Puranic Sanskrit

Category: Languages
Course #: 26272
Units: 5
Instructors: Sally J. Sutherland Goldman
Times and Locations:

MWF 12-1:30 pm

location:tbd

Introduces students to the itihasa/puranic traditions and related commentarial style of Sanskrit. An extended passage from Valmiki’s Ramayana, Vyasa’s Mahabharata, or one of the Mahapuranas is normally read with commentary, if available. The development of strong reading skills is the focus of the class. Additionally,…

South Asian 1A: Introduction to the Civilization of Early India

Category: South Asian
Course #: 26260
Units: 4
Times and Locations:

TuTh 12:30-2 pm, 170 Social Sciences Building

Section 101 (#26261): W 12-1 pm, 56 Hildebrand

Section 102 (#23082): W 1-2 pm, 289 Cory

This course offers a broad historical, political, ethnographical and and cultural survey of the civilizations of the Indian subcontinent from the earliest period known to archaeology to the advent of Islam as a major cultural and political force around the 13th century CE. Lectures, readings,…

South Asian R5A Section 1: Great Books of India

Category: Reading and Composition
Course #: 22814
Units: 4
Instructors: Staff
Times and Locations:
MWF 11am-12pm
279 Dwinelle

Reading and composition based on 10 classic works of Indian literature ranging from the ancient Sanskrit epics to modern novels by Indian and western authors. Weekly composition on texts and topics read and discussed in class. Satisfies the first half of the Reading and Composition…

South Asian R5A Section 2: Great Books of India

Category: Reading and Composition
Course #: 26262
Units: 4
Instructors: Staff
Times and Locations:

MWF 1-2 pm

279 Dwinelle

Reading and composition based on 10 classic works of Indian literature ranging from the ancient Sanskrit epics to modern novels by Indian and western authors. Weekly composition on texts and topics read and discussed in class. Satisfies the first half of the Reading and Composition…

South Asian R5A Section 4: Great Books of India

Category: Reading and Composition
Course #: 26264
Units: 4
Instructors: Staff
Times and Locations:

TuTh 9:30-11

45 Evans

Reading and composition based on 10 classic works of Indian literature ranging from the ancient Sanskrit epics to modern novels by Indian and western authors. Weekly composition on texts and topics read and discussed in class. Satisfies the first half of the Reading and Composition…

South Asian R5A Section 3: Great Books of India

Category: Reading and Composition
Course #: 26263
Units: 4
Instructors: Staff
Times and Locations:

MWF 3-4 pm

7 Evans

Reading and composition based on 10 classic works of Indian literature ranging from the ancient Sanskrit epics to modern novels by Indian and western authors. Weekly composition on texts and topics read and discussed in class. Satisfies the first half of the Reading and Composition…

South Asian 123: Religion in Medieval India: Devotional (Bhakti) Literature of South Asia

Category: South Asian
Course #: 30254
Units: 4
Times and Locations:

TuTh 11 am-12:30 pm

2030 VLSB

This course will introduce students to the rich heritage of devotional literature in pre- and early modern South Asia, often referred to as Bhakti. This course will include examples from medieval India as well as from many languages and regions, an area that encompasses modern-day…

South Asian 146: Mughal India through Memoirs, Chronicles and other Texts: The Mughal Empire, 1500-1857

Category: South Asian
Course #: 30256
Units: 4
Instructors: Munis D. Faruqui
Times and Locations:

TuTh 12:30-2 pm

104 Wheeler

This course is designed to provide a chronological and thematic approach to the study of one of the greatest empires in human civilization: the Mughal Empire. Although the bulk of this course will focus on the Mughal Empire during its heyday between the 1550s and…

South Asian C224: Readings in Tibetan Buddhist Texts

Category: Graduate Seminars
Course #: 24371
Units: 2
Instructors: Jacob Dalton
Times and Locations:
Tu 2-5 pm
288 Dwinelle

This seminar provides an introduction to a broad range of Tibetan Buddhist texts, including chronicles and histories, biographical literature, doctrinal treatises, canonical texts, ritual manuals, pilgrimage guides, and liturgical texts. It is intended for graduate students interested in premodern Tibet from any perspective. Students are…

Southeast Asian R5A Section 1: Self, Representation, and Nation

Category: Reading and Composition
Course #: 24009
Units: 4
Instructors: Staff
Times and Locations:

TuTh 9:30-11

187 Dwinelle

This course is devoted to a study of selected literary texts set in various regions of Southeast Asia. The readings will include works by foreign authors who lived and traveled in Southeast Asia and translations of works by Southeast Asian writers. These texts will be…

Southeast Asian R5A Section 2: Self, Representation, and Nation

Category: Reading and Composition
Course #: 24966
Units: 4
Instructors: Staff
Times and Locations:

TuTh 12:30-2

179 Dwinelle

This course is devoted to a study of selected literary texts set in various regions of Southeast Asia. The readings will include works by foreign authors who lived and traveled in Southeast Asia and translations of works by Southeast Asian writers. These texts will be…

Southeast Asian C164: The Indonesian Connection: Dutch (Post)colonial History and Culture in Southeast Asia

Category: Southeast Asian
Course #: 33139
Units: 4
Times and Locations:

TuTh 3:30-5

223 Dwinelle

In postcolonial thought on European claims to cultural supremacy, the case of the “Dutch East-Indies” (the future Indonesia) still arouses questions like: What made the Dutch colonial policy different from that of other European powers? What were the main characteristics of the “Dutch East-Indies”? How…

Southeast Asian 10A: Power, Performance and Identity in Mainland Southeast Asia

Category: Southeast Asian
Course #: 26273
Units: 4
Times and Locations:

TuTh 12:30-2pm, 9 Lewis

Section 101 (#26274): F 10-11 am, 243 Dwinelle

Section 102 (#26275): W 1-2 pm, 79 Dwinelle

This Gateway Course to the Major in Southeast Asian Studies introduces the culture and history of Cambodia, Laos, Burma/Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam with an emphasis on Southeast Asian voices. Our themes for 2020 are identity, power, and performance. From royal courts and temples to modern…

South and Southeast Asian 39 Section 2: Fiction, Truth, and Memory in the Narratives of Filipina Writers

Category: Freshman and Sophomore Seminars
Course #: 30952
Units: 2
Instructors: Joi Barrios-LeBlanc, Karen Llagas
Times and Locations:

Th 9-11 am

51 Evans

Have you read short stories and autobiographical narratives of women writers? In this course, we will focus on the works of Filipina writers based in the Philippines, the United Stated and other parts of the world. Among the questions we will explore are: What are…

Southeast Asian 137: Islam, Culture, and Politics in Southeast Asia

Category: Southeast Asian
Course #: 26276
Units: 4
Instructors: Sylvia Tiwon
Times and Locations:

TuTh 11 am-12:30 pm

242 Dwinelle

This upper-division undergraduate course studies key discourses on the cultures and politics of Islam in Southeast Asia. We trace the processes through which Islam entered the Malay world in the 13th century; explore the European colonial encounters with Islam in Southeast Asia and the ways…

Southeast Asian 167: Contemporary Popular Cultures of the Philippines

Category: Southeast Asian
Course #: 25419
Units: 4
Instructors: Lisandro Claudio
Times and Locations:

TuTh 12:30-2 pm

242 Dwinelle

This course is an overview of Philippine culture from the mid-twentieth century until present, with an emphasis on film, pop music, television, popular journalism, and food cultures. It examines the evolution of Philippine culture in light of broadcast and digital media.

South and Southeast Asian 24: Freshman Seminar: Readings in Indian Philosophical Thought

Category: Freshman and Sophomore Seminars
Course #: 27048
Units: 1
Instructors: Nora Koa
Times and Locations:

Tu 1-2

51 Evans

The Freshman Seminar Program has been designed to provide new students with the opportunity to explore an intellectual topic with a faculty member in a small seminar setting. Freshman seminars are offered in all campus departments and topics vary from department to department and semester…

South and Southeast Asian C147: Introduction to Pali

Category: South and Southeast Asian
Course #: 32629
Units: 4

South and Southeast Asian 39 Section 1: Filipino Spirituality: Influences of Catholicism, Islam, and Indigenous Beliefs in Philippine Art and Literature

Category: Freshman and Sophomore Seminars
Course #: 16673
Units: 2
Instructors: Cynthia “Chat” Aban, Joi Barrios-LeBlanc
Times and Locations:

Tu 9-11 am

72 Evans

Have you ever wondered why the homes of Filipino families in the United States display religious statues or celebrate Christmas and Lent in a different way from other Christians? Have you read Filipino poems, stories, songs, and festivals that focus on or mention Babaylan spritual…

South and Southeast Asian Studies 250 Section 1: Seminar

Category: Graduate Seminars
Course #: 25254
Units: 4
Instructors: Munis D. Faruqui
Times and Locations:

1 to 4 units

W 4-7 pm

204 Dwinelle

South and Southeast Asian Studies 250 Section 2: Seminar

Category: Graduate Seminars
Course #: 30938
Units: 4
Instructors: Lisandro Claudio
Times and Locations:

1 to 4 units

M 3-6 pm

204 Dwinelle

South and Southeast Asian 375: Methods and Problems in Teaching South and Southeast Asian Studies

Category: Graduate Seminars
Course #: 25862
Units: 3
Times and Locations:
Tu 2-5 pm
204 Dwinelle

This course prepares graduate students to teach R&C and gateway courses, consolidating skills and developing confidence in the classroom. The course will give students practical experience in creating and adapting materials for use in the classroom, while consolidating their understanding of the basic principles of…

South and Southeast Asian C52: Introduction to the Study of Buddhism

Category: Buddhism
Course #: 23084
Units: 4
Times and Locations:

MWF 10-11, 145 Dwinelle

Section 101 (#23085) W 11-12pm, 104 Social Sciences Building
Section 102 (#24228): W 12-1pm, 2038 Valley Life Sciences
Section 103 (#23086): W 1-2pm, 251 Dwinelle
Section 104 (#24227): Th 10-11am, tbd
Section 105 (#23087): Th 11-12pm, 87 Evans
Section 106 (#23088): Th 12-1pm, 83 Dwinelle
Section 107 (#26961): Th 1-2pm, 102 Wheeler
Section 108 (#26962): F 9-10am, 87 Dwinelle

This introduction to the study of Buddhism will consider materials drawn from various Buddhist traditions of Asia, from ancient times down to the present day. However, the course is not intended to be a comprehensive or systematic survey; rather than aiming at breadth, the course…

Telugu 1A: Elementary Telugu

Category: Languages
Course #: 23017
Units: 4
Instructors: Bharathy Sankara Rajulu
Times and Locations:

TuTh 12:30-2 pm, 233 Dwinelle

W 12-1 pm, 214 Haviland

This elementary level course focuses on progressive acquisition of language skills to communicate effectively in Telugu. It facilitates development of Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing competence along with basic grammar.

Tamil 1A: Introductory Tamil

Category: Languages
Course #: 22939
Units: 5
Instructors: Bharathy Sankara Rajulu
Times and Locations:

T  11:00 – 12:29 pm

W 10:00 – 11.59 am

R 11:00 – 12:29 pm

This course focuses on progressive acquisition of language skills to communicate effectively in  Tamil. It facilitates development of Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing competence along  with basic grammar. By the end of the course, students will be able to Communicate at a basic level of…

Tamil 101A: Readings in Tamil

Category: Languages
Course #: 25304
Units: 4
Instructors: Bharathy Sankara Rajulu
Times and Locations:

M 11:00 – 11:59 am

W 1:00 – 1:59 pm

F 11:00 – 12:59 pm

This course introduces students to a variety of literary styles. 101 A will consist of weekly readings and discussions of short stories, poems and dramatic sketches from representative authors. Short written assignments on themes suggested by the readings are required. Special attention is paid to…

Vietnamese 1A Section 1: Introductory Vietnamese

Category: Languages
Course #: 22944
Units: 5
Instructors: Hanh Tran
Times and Locations:

MTuWThF 11 am-12pm

233 Dwinelle

An introduction to modern spoken and written Vietnamese, designed for novice learner without any experience with the language. The first semester emphasizes phonetic concepts, syllable formations and tonal distinctions along with simple sentence structures in everyday topics. Class activities focus on reading and writing skills,…

Urdu 1A: Introductory Urdu

Category: Languages
Course #: 23972
Units: 5
Instructors: Gregory Maxwell Bruce
Times and Locations:

MTuWThF 10-11 am

189 Dwinelle

The course concentrates on developing skills in reading, writing, speaking, and aural comprehension. Evaluation is based on attendance, written homework assignments, quizzes, dictations, and examinations. Conventional teaching materials may be supplemented by popular songs and clips from contemporary Indian cinema.

Urdu 100A: Intermediate Urdu

Category: Languages
Course #: 23973
Units: 4
Instructors: Gregory Maxwell Bruce
Times and Locations:

MWF 11 am-12 pm

189 Dwinelle

Introduces various types of written and spoken Urdu; vocabulary building, idioms, and problems of syntax; and conversation. Reading of selected fiction and nonfiction in modern Urdu, including fables, short stories, and poetry. Exercises in grammar, conversation, and composition.

Urdu 101A: Advanced Urdu

Category: Languages
Course #: 24229
Units: 3
Instructors: Gregory Maxwell Bruce
Times and Locations:
TuTh 11 am-12:30 pm
104 Dwinelle

Reading of Urdu prose and poetry in a variety of literary and scholarly styles; composition. Topics in advanced grammar; designed to improve proficiency in speaking, listening, reading, and writing. Students will be expected to converse in a clearly participatory fashion, initiate, sustain, and bring to…

Vietnamese 1A Section 2: Introductory Vietnamese

Category: Languages
Course #: 22945
Units: 5
Instructors: Hanh Tran
Times and Locations:

MTuWThF 12-1pm

206 Dwinelle

An introduction to modern spoken and written Vietnamese, designed for novice learner without any experience with the language. The first semester emphasizes phonetic concepts, syllable formations and tonal distinctions along with simple sentence structures in everyday topics. Class activities focus on reading and writing skills,…

Vietnamese 100A: Intermediate Vietnamese

Category: Languages
Course #: 23046
Units: 5
Instructors: Hanh Tran
Times and Locations:

MTuWThF 1-2pm

206 Dwinelle

An introduction to modern spoken and written Vietnamese, designed for novice learner without any experience with the language. The first semester emphasizes phonetic concepts, syllable formations and tonal distinctions along with simple sentence structures in everyday topics. Class activities focus on reading and writing skills,…

Vietnamese 101A: Advanced Vietnamese: Vietnamese Literature

Category: Languages
Course #: 22911
Units: 3
Instructors: Cam Nguyen
Times and Locations:

TuTh 2-3:30pm

106 Dwinelle

This course is designed for students who have already achieved an intermediate degree of proficiency in speaking, reading, and writing modern Vietnamese. Objective: to move students toward a greater level of fluency in each of these key areas and provide an introduction to the literature…